Several complex factors contribute to the development of Bipolar Disorder. 

These include genetic and environmental factors and an imbalance of chemicals in the brain. Exactly how the disorder develops is unclear, so it can be tricky to treat. 

Brain chemicals – called neurotransmitters, are like couriers in the brain. They carry signals from one part to another. 

Scientists have developed several methods to study chemical activity in the brain. Yet, there are no methods to measure the brain chemicals’ concentration.

The neurotransmitters that contribute to mood stability include serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. These chemicals are not measured for clinical purposes but are researched in a laboratory setting to determine the therapeutic effects of drugs.

What makes management of bipolar disorder challenging is that no two people are alike, nor do they respond to medication in the same way.

Different Medications

Understanding how different antidepressants work is complex. Because neurotransmitters cannot be accurately measured, it is often a case of trial and error to find the best fit.


Sometimes one drug can stabilise a person’s mood, while other people need a combination of several. When the same condition has to be treated with different classes of drugs, the water becomes muddier still. 

Mood stabilisers

The drugs most used to treat Bipolar Disorder are mood stabilisers. These drugs do not cure mood swings; moods are stabilised by reducing severe mania and depression.

Mood stabilisers reduce agitation hallucination and help with sleep difficulties. They also prevent relapses and hospitalisation. 


There are three broad types of mood stabilisers- Lithium, Anti-convulsants and Anti-psychotics.  Each has a different effect. 


Lithium is the most used and studied drug to treat Bipolar Disorder. Lithium reduces the severity of mania and can significantly reduce suicide risk.


These are anti-seizure drugs for disorders like epilepsy. Originally they were only prescribed to people who could not tolerate Lithium, but they are now widely prescribed. العاب ماكينات  

They work by calming hyperactivity in the brain in several ways. Anticonvulsants can be used with Lithium or on their own.


Although antipsychotics do not cure psychosis, they reduce delusions, hallucinations, confusion and mania. 

If symptoms of depression or mania persist despite mood stabilisers, adding an antipsychotic drug may help. Antipsychotics can be used for long term mood stabilisation. 


Antidepressants are not used in isolation for Bipolar disorder. They are typically added to a mood stabiliser. Because an antidepressant can sometimes trigger a manic episode, it’s usually prescribed along with a mood stabiliser or antipsychotic.

There are different types of antidepressants that act on various neurotransmitters.  It is not uncommon for your doctor to prescribe more than one kind. 

  • SSRI – regulates serotonin. 
  • SNRI – prevent the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. 
  • NDRI – increases the amount of active norepinephrine and dopamine.


Antidepressants combined with an antipsychotic work to stabilise mood and lift depression. 

Anti-anxiety medications. 

Anti-anxiety medications are sometimes prescribed to help with anxiety, but these are generally used on a short term basis. 

In Summary

Finding the proper medication for bipolar disorder can be challenging. People experience different symptoms and severity of symptoms. Plus, everyone responds differently to medication.

This is why finding the drug or combination of drugs that works best for you. You may have to try several different medications and many combinations before finding the right mix. 

Of course, trial and error can feel frustrating, and patience is vital. Even after finding the right drug or mix, it might still take some adjusting to find the correct dose. 

Episode is a marked phase of abnormally elevated mood. Mania and hypomania share the same symptoms, but they differ in severity.

The best way to manage bipolar disorder is to prevent manic episodes. Although it is not always possible to avoid these episodes, a better understanding of triggers can help you manage the disorder more effectively.

What are the Triggers for Mania

A vast range of circumstances can lead to manic episodes. Here we list some of the more common triggers.

Sleep Disturbances the most common trigger for mania is sleep loss. Although disrupted sleep patterns are a feature of bipolar disorder, they can also trigger mood instability.

Negative life events

Negative life events are inevitable. There are times that we can anticipate them, and other times, they hit us unexpectedly. Job loss, death of a loved one, end of a relationship are examples of adverse life events. Even conflict with co-workers or family members can trigger an episode. While it is more common that negative life events worsen depression, they can also result in mania. كيف تلعب بوكر

Positive life events can trigger mania because individuals with bipolar disorder have high reward responsiveness, and the heightened response to an exciting event can lead to mania.

Substance Use and Abuse. Mania is known to be triggered by drug and alcohol usage. This is because all chemicals impact the delicate neurochemical balance in our brains.

Seasonal Changes. Unfortunately, these seasonal triggers are unavoidable, so keeping a consistent schedule is essential. Many people feel elation as Summer comes around, but it can also cause hypomania in these same individuals.

Poor Diet. Western diets are high in processed foods and sugar. Processed food high in omega-6 fatty acids increases the body’s inflammatory response, which is harmful to overall brain function and has a negative effect on bipolar disorder. Sugar not only contributes to obesity but can seriously compromise mood stability.

Recognising Triggers

Prevention of bipolar mood episodes can be challenging, but understanding triggers may make the illness easier to manage.

An important way to avoid a manic episode is to recognise early signs and get help to prevent mania from escalating.

Some of the most common warning signs include:

Insomnia. Needing much less sleep than usual. Wake up in the early hours with a mind buzzing with ideas.

Unrealistic overconfidence. Delusions of grandeur make you feel invincible. This may be difficult to recognise in yourself, but if you start feeling like you can take over the world- seek help.

Overspending. A warning is that feeling a constant and compulsive urge to buy what you don’t need.

Self-neglect. If you are jumping from one project or task to another and feel that taking time to shower or feed yourself is unnecessary, get help.

Inability to focus. When your mind is too busy to focus on a single thing at a time, being unable to read a book or sit through an entire movie, for example, could mean you are headed for mania.

Final Word

Not everyone will experience the same symptoms, so it’s essential to know yourself and your baseline. Using a daily mood tracker will help you anticipate a severe fluctuation in mood.

One of the most critical aspects of managing your illness is to stay on a routine, mainly keeping a stable sleep pattern.